The streamlines from charges in the previous topic of “Coulomb’s law and electric field intensity” are actually not physically present or visually observable, but when these streamlines are drawn, they become a helpful tool to represent the presence of something. The term of electric flux also shows what the streamlines

Now that we have established the basics of vector analysis , it is time to start our journey on Electromagnetic (EM) field theory. We start at first with Coulomb’s law and then move on to the other important laws before deriving Maxwell’s equations. What is Coulomb’s law? Coulomb’s law was

Vector Analysis Studying electromagnetic field theory needs the know-how of vector analysis and that is why it is discussed here. Vector analysis is a branch of mathematics that is used to solve vectors. Scalar and Vector Quantities A vector is a quantity that is described with both quantity and direction,

Calculations of water pumping system design A water pumping system pumps the groundwater to the surface for its usage. The pumping system requires two major components, mentioned below. A water pump that has a motor in it for pumping purposes, and A power source to run the water pump. When

What are spray-on solar cells? The spray-on solar cells are an extension of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In these solar cells, the active perovskite material is sprayed on a substrate that already has layers of cathode and electron transport layer (ETL). Further layers needed in the complete design of the

Perovskite solar cells A perovskite solar cell is a solar energy harvesting cell, just like other technologies of the solar cells. However, as its name suggests, perovskite solar cells have an active perovskite material whose structure of crystal resembles the crystal structure of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3 ). All perovskite

Color filters A color filter is any object that reflects or transmits light in a way that some color is observed. The color filters, as the name suggests, filters some parts of the electromagnetic spectrum of the sun (or Blackbody radiation spectrum). This wavelength spectrum is then sent to the

What is a windmill? A windmill is a device that harnesses wind energy by utilizing the kinetic energy of the wind and converts this energy into rotational kinetic energy, which is then used to grind grain and other crops. Although windmills can also be used for the generation of electricity,

What is an artificial leaf? Photosynthesis and its working Most of the scientific advancements and strides “Man” has made, come directly from observing and studying nature. It is as if nature presents the questions and contains the answers within itself, which are just needed to be explored. This fact can

Design of a metasurface lens The design of any metasurface requires the optimization of unit elements, which can be done through sweeps and specialized algorithms designed for a specific problem, which are sometimes present in commercial software (most of the times algorithms are written by the user). The optimization of